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Insulin degradation:

The liver & the kidney participates in the removal of insulin.Normally 60% of the insulin is removed by the liver & the kidney removes the remaining. While in subcutanouous insulin injection insulindegradation is mainly by the kidney.Have life of circulating insulin is 3-5 min.(t1/2)

Endocrine Function of The Pancreas :

Approximately 1 million Islets of Langerhansin an adults human Pancreas.Within these islets atleast 4 hormones producing region are present.See the table..

Pancreatic islet cells and their secretory products.

Cell Types

Approximate Percent of Islet Mass

Secretory Products

Within pancreatic polypeptide-rich lobules of adult islets, located only in the posterior  portion of the head of the human pancreas, glucagon cells are scarce (< 0.5%) and Fcells make up as much as 80% of the cells.

Hormones :

1-Insulin: the storage & anabolic hormone of thebody.

2-Glucagon: metabolizes glycogen store.

3-Amylin: modulates appitite, gastric emptying ,&  Glucagon and insulin secretion.

4-Somatostatin: inhibition of the secretion cells. & self inhibition.

5-Pancreatic peptides (PP):Facilitation of digestive processes.


The American Diabetes Association in 1994 recommendedthat 60-70% of caloric intake should be in the form of carbohydrates. This is somewhat controversial, with someresearchers claiming that 40% is better, while others claimbenefits for a high-fiber, 75% carbohydrate diet.An article summarizing the view of the American DiabetesAssociation gives many recommendations and referencesto the research. One of the conclusions is that caloricintake must be limited to that which is necessary for maintaining a healthy weight. The methodology of thedietary therapy has attracted lots of attentions from manyscientific researchers and the protocols are ranging fromnutritional balancing to ambulatory diet-care.

Specific diets

Low-carbohydrate diet

It has been suggested that the gradualremoval of carbohydrates from the diet and replacementwith fatty foods such as nuts, seeds, meats, fish, oils,eggs, avocados, olives, and vegetables may help reversediabetes. Fats would become the primary calorie sourcefor the body, and complications due to insulin resistancewould be minimized.

High fiber diet

– It has been shown that a high fiber dietworks better than the diet recommended by the AmericanDiabetes Association in controlling diabetes, and maycontrol blood sugar levels with the same efficacy as oraldiabetes drugs.


Pharmacology Report


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