How insulin works

Not all cells require insulin to transport glucose into their interior.

There are “insulin independent” cells that absorb glucose in direct proportion to the blood glucose level. Cells like this can be found in the brain cells, nerve fibres, retina, kidneys and adrenal glands, as well as in the blood vessels and the red blood cells.

It may seem illogical that certain cells can absorb glucose without insulin.

However, in a situation where there is not enough glucose in the body, the insulin production will be stopped, reserving the glucose for the most important organs.

If you have diabetes and your blood glucose level is high, the cells that don’t need insulin will absorb large amount of glucose”. 

(Dr. Ragnar Hanas – book  “Type 1 Diabetes in Children, Adolescents  and Young Adults”)

Dr. Ragnar Hanas, (ISPAD – International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes) has worked with children and adolescents with diabetes for over 15 years.


“In the 1950’s, scientists incorrectly coined the term “insulin dependent” to mean that muscle and fat required insulin to take up glucoseHowever, glucose is transported into the cells with or without insulin.  There are enough glucose transporters in all cell membranes to guarantee adequate glucose uptake to have a cell’s respiration requirements work, even WITHOUT INSULIN! It has been shown that adipocytes can uptake glucose without insulin through stimulation of glucose transporters.

(Robert O. Young D.Sc., Ph.D., NMD )




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