Diabetes Prevention and Care

EUropean Core Indicators in Diabetes EUCI

HbA1C > 7.0%, in diabetic population aged >25 years, crude percentages


The data shown above were collected by the EUCID project for 2005 (2004-2006).

The data presented represent the percentages of the tested diabetic population that show HbA1c levels > 7.0%.


Figure 3. Prevalence of microalbuminuria in 16–25 year olds with T1DM (left bars), including those with diabetes for 10 years (y) (right bars)

Over the age of 12 years, microalbuminuria were more common amongst Māori and Pacific Islanders (43.8%) compared to Europeans (17%) or Others (17.8%). This was independent of the type of diabetes.

Figure 4. Prevalence of retinopathy in 16–25 year olds with T1DM and effect of duration of diabetes (Centre 6 reported no retinopathy)


This is the first study to look at the outcomes of care of children and young adults with diabetes across NZ and involved 8 adult and 6 paediatric diabetes services in 9 centres. The results demonstrate a disappointing picture of poor glycaemic control and moderately high rates of microvascular complications, as seen in other studies. Despite widespread use of multiple injection therapy, at all ages, few people achieved satisfactory control (only 22% had a recent HbA1c < 8%).

Although glycaemic control in each centre was poor, it is similar to other published studies in Europe of unselected young people with diabetes.8–12 Little data on young people with diabetes in NZ is available. In 2002, the Christchurch group reported a mean HbA1c for females aged between 13 and 20 years was 10.2% and 9.5% for males.19

The type of insulin regimen (including use of pumps) did not appear to have much impact on glycaemic control. Our finding of a relationship between the HbA1c during the first year after diagnosis and future glycaemic control is consistent with data from Australia which suggested that poor control in childhood led to poor control in adolescence and beyond.20

Results: There were significant centre differences in terms of glycaemic control, rates of microvascular complications and complication screening. The group mean HbA1c was 9.1±0.3%. Amongst 789 people aged 16–25 years, the prevalence of retinopathy was 12.8% (range 0–26%); nephropathy was 17.1% (range 7–28 %). Of those with a duration of diabetes >10 years, 25% had retinopathy and 27% nephropathy. Over the age of 12, microalbuminuria was more common amongst Māori and Pacific Islanders (43.8%) compared to Europeans (17%) or Others (17.8%). This was independent of the type of diabetes.

Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 02-June-2006, Vol 119 No 1235


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