Diabetes and diet


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5.3 Response to Snacks

Figure 5-3 shows the results of tests on some of the items that I regularly use as snacks.
Response graphs could be developed for many other foods; however, as I got to understand how my body reacted, producing a peak in the range of 40 to 75 minutes with most whole foods (i.e., not simple sugars) a single test was usually sufficient to qualify acceptable snacks.

Comments on figure 5-3

The cranberry Balance bar (distributed by Bio-Foods Inc) contains 21 grams of carbohydrate, 14 grams of protein, 6 grams of fat, and 3 grams of fiber for a total of 180 calories. These ingredients have a nominal calorie content in the ratio of 40% carbohydrates, 30% protein, and 30% fat, as recommended in the Zone diet proposed by Barry Sears, Ph.D. [5]. Not all apples will show the same response, and each person must evaluate his or her own response to determine what part these snacks can play in the diet.

Other snacks tested for )BG (average increase in BG level caused over a 2-hour period) include, 30 grams of chocolate liqueurs causing )BG = 19 mg/dL, 60 grams of sausage rolls causing 37 mg/dL, and 30 grams of cheese scones causing )BG = 17 mg/dL.

5.4 Response to Different Breakfast Meals
Figure 5-4 Illustrates some items that I use in my breakfast menu.

Comments on figure 5-4
These curves show once again the significant effect that carbohydrates have in raising my BG level, whereas protein and fat have a small effect. For example, if we incorporate this data with that shown in figure 5-1, it is clear that an egg omelet with sausages 10 would raise my BG very little. The highest curve, which includes the effect of pumpernickel bread, includes significantly more carbohydrates than I would normally have for breakfast, but it is given as an example. Pumpernickel bread was selected because it has a reduced glycemic index, which is a measure of a substance’s effect on the BG level over a 2- or 3-hour period. As noted before, different individuals would have different response curves, although the relative effects may be similar.

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The substance glycemic index can be used to calculate average blood glucose levels which in turn can be used to estimate HbA1c.

Recalling that for me an SGI of 100 corresponds to an AUC of about 10,400 mg/dL minutes (plasma), here is an example of a typical

day’s food input.


Breakfast 30

Morning snack 10

Lunch 30

Afternoon snack 10

Dinner 77

Evening snack 18


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