Microalbuminuria prevalence varies with age, sex, and puberty in children with type 1 diabetes
In subjects who had been 5-11 years of age when their diabetes was diagnosed, the appearance of MA was delayed until puberty, whereas of those whose age was < 5 years at diagnosis of diabetes, 5 of 11 (45%) developed MA before puberty. The adjusted proportional probability (Cox model) of MA was greater for female subjects (200%), after pubertal onset (310%), and with greater HbAlc (36% increase for every 1% increase in HbAlc). Despite earlier differences based on age at diagnosis of diabetes ( 11 years), the overall cumulative risks in these groups were similar (38 vs. 29 vs. 39%, respectively) after 10 years’ duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Prepubertal duration of diabetes and prepubertal hyperglycemia contribute to the risk of postpubertal MA. The differences in rates of development of MA relating to HbAlc, sex, and age at diagnosis relative to puberty may have long-term consequences for the risk of subsequent nephropathy and for cardiovascular risk.